Numerical age dating
In historical geology, the primary methods of absolute dating involve using the radioactive decay of elements trapped in rocks or minerals, including isotope systems from very young (radiocarbon dating with Radiometric dating is based on the known and constant rate of decay of radioactive isotopes into their radiogenic daughter isotopes.
Particular isotopes are suitable for different applications due to the type of atoms present in the mineral or other material and its approximate age.
They then "date" samples from these rocks to test their relative age hypotheses.
“Facies” fossils may be useful in “worldwide” facies. Isotopic age dates (±2% commonly, but becoming much better) Magnetic reversals (“apple & orange” problem) Eustatic sea level changes (not instantaneous) Extraterrestrial impact event (rare): Bedding plane or other lithostratigraphic marker or boundary (key bed)Lava flow Turbidite deposit Varve Unconformity (all strata above unconformity younger than all strata below, with rare exceptions) Stratigraphic position or succession Long-distance methods TRANSGRESSIONS & REGRESSIONS: see text Figures 4.12, 4.13.: the process of shifting the boundary between nonmarine & marine deposition seaward toward the basin center or the process of shifting nearshore depositional areas toward offshore depositional areas (the beach moves offshore). Assumed Earth cooled according to ordinary laws of conduction & radiation of heat 3.
May be produced by Sea-level decline (global) Land uplift (regional) Deposition erosion (progradation) (local) The ultimate cause of transgressions & regressions may be: Tectonic: produced by structural movement Eustatic: produced by global sea-level changes (see text Figure 4.14, 4.15) Isostatic: produced by rise or subsidence of the Earth’s crust due to unloading or loading. Determined age of Earth as 20-100 million years before present (20-100 Ma) 4. Did not know about radioactivity in Earth’s interior as a source of heat b.
Sample dating is done by counting beads that represent 235U and 207Pb atoms in a zircon.
Students should be able to read x-y plots and divide two numbers.